Tag Archives: CSS

A quick Firebug tip for editing CSS

I’ve talked before about Firebug’s inspector tool for examinating the markup of a page and its associated style. When you inspect a particular element in the markup you can see the CSS rules that have been applied to it. But what if the styles applied to an element change based on user interaction? How do you “catch” the style of a hover interaction, or of an element which has focus?

For instance: In the Koha staff client there is a global style for the color of a link when you hover your cursor over it.

Koha link color on hover

This color is defined in the staff client’s main CSS file, staff-global.css:

[sourcecode language=”css”] a:hover, a:active {
color : #538200;
text-decoration: none;

However, if you use Firebug’s inspector to examine a link you won’t see that CSS:

Inspecting a link in the staff client

That’s because the Firebug inspector isn’t showing you the “hover” state of the link–at least not unless you’re mouse cursor is hovering over the link at the time:

Inspecting the link on hover

But what if we want to use Firebug’s Style tab to live-edit the CSS of the hover state? As soon as we move our mouse away from the link the hover state disappears from the style pane, so we can’t edit it. Luckily Firebug has an option built in for “activating” three different interaction states: Hover, Active, and Focus:

Firebug Style tab interaction options

By selecting “:hover” we can “pin” the hover state to keep it activated so that we can inspect and change it:

Edit the hover style in Firebug

We can test the “focus” option by inspecting the style of any standard text input in Koha, for example the barcode field on the check-in page:

Inspecting an element's :focus state in Firebug

This lets us see that there is a CSS rule defining a default border style for <input> and <textarea>

[sourcecode language=”css”] input:focus, textarea:focus {
border-color: #538200;
border-radius: 4px;
border-style: solid;

And from there we can customize away:

[sourcecode language=”css”] input:focus {
border-top: 5px solid #EF5959;
border-bottom: 5px solid #FF975F;
background-image: -webkit-gradient(linear, 0 0, 0 100%, from(#EF5959), to(#FF975F));
background-image: -webkit-linear-gradient(#EF5959, #FF975F);
background-image: -moz-linear-gradient(#EF5959, #FF975F),
-moz-linear-gradient(#EF5959, #FF975F);
background-image: -o-linear-gradient(#EF5959, #FF975F),
-o-linear-gradient(#EF5959, #FF975F);
background-image: linear-gradient(#EF5959, #FF975F),
linear-gradient(#EF5959, #FF975F);
-moz-background-size:5px 100%;
background-size:5px 100%;
background-position:0 0, 100% 0;
border-width: 5px 0;
padding: 5px;

A custom input border

Customizing the staff client login logo

A Koha user (from Tanzania!) asked today on the Koha mailing list, “I need some help on how to customize the staff client login page/replace koha logo with a new one.” I haven’t heard this request before, so it’s a good opportunity to investigate.

If this were the OPAC we could use a system preference, opacsmallimage, to change the logo. We don’t have that option in the staff client, so we’ll have to see if we can use the available customization options to accomplish the same thing.

Our first stop, as usual, is FireBug. I opened up the staff client to examine how the default Koha logo is displayed on the login form. Using the Inspect tool I highlight the logo and view the results in the FireBug HTML inspector window:

FireBug details for the login logo anchor tag

The logo is constructed by nesting a link (“anchor”) tag (<a>) inside a top-level heading tag (<h1>). The above screenshot shows the HTML and style details for the <a>, here are the results for the <h1>:

FireBug details for the login logo heading tag

From this we can collect all the CSS information we need to control the display of the login logo:

[sourcecode language=”css”] #login h1 a {
border-bottom:medium none;

#login h1 {
background:url("../../img/koha-logo.gif") no-repeat scroll center top transparent;

The staff client logo is displayed using an image-replacement technique similar to the one used to display the Koha logo in the OPAC. The style of the anchor tag sets an explicit height which matches the logo image, and it sets a negative text-indent property which moves the text contents of the tag off the screen. These two properties create a blank space inside the anchor tag in which to display the logo.

The style of the heading tag does the work of displaying the logo. The background property points to the URL of the logo image. In the default case this is an image file on the Koha server’s file system. The URL doesn’t have to be a relative one, though. It can be a full URL pointing to anywhere on the internet.

Customizing the logo CSS

In order to change the image we need to make very simple changes to two CSS properties:

  1. The background-image of the <h1> tag.
  2. The height of the <a> tag.

Let’s use as an example the logo on the Athens County Public Libraries site. I can right-click the image in Firefox and choose “View image” to find the details I need. The location bar shows the URL I need, and the title bar shows the dimensions of the image. I just need to note the height.

Since we only need to change two properties, our custom CSS is simpler than the original. We only need to specify the properties which we need to override:

[sourcecode language=”css”] #login h1 a {

#login h1 {
background:url("https://www.myacpl.org/sites/all/themes/npl/logo.png") no-repeat scroll center top transparent;

Applying the custom CSS

We’ve got our custom CSS, now what do we do with it? We don’t have an opacsmallimage preference for the staff client, and we don’t even have an option like OPACUserCSS. We do have a couple of options which will work.


If you have access to your Koha server’s file system you can add a stylesheet there and tell Koha to apply it in addition to the default staff client stylesheet. For example, you could create a new CSS file called custom.css and save it alongside staff-global.css and the other staff client CSS files. Then you can specify that filename, custom.css, in the intranetcolorstylesheet system preference.


If you don’t have access to your Koha server’s file system, there’s a way to insert custom CSS into your staff client pages, but it’s a bit of a hack. Lacking an “intranetusercss” preference we’re going to hijack an existing preference, intranetuserjs, to do the job for us.

When you insert custom JavaScript into the intranetuserjs preference, Koha detects this and adds it to the header of each staff client page, wrapped in the appropriate <script> tags:

[sourcecode language=”javascript”]



Since Koha automatically wraps the intranetuserjs content in opening and closing <script> tags, we’ll have to do a little bit of roundabout coding to embed a <style> block:

[sourcecode language=”javascript”]


/* Custom styles here */



Let’s run down what’s happening here. Lines 1 and 2 have been inserted automatically by Koha in order to properly embed the custom JavaScript it expects from the intranetuserjs preference. Line 3 is the first line of the contents of intranetuserjs. Lines 4 and 5 we have added manually to close the automatically-embedded <script> tag. With the script tag closed we can go on to add just about any HTML we want, really, but this is all inside the <head> of the HTML document, so few things would be valid.

Lines 6, 7, and 8 show the <style> tag we’re adding. This is where we’re going to put our custom CSS. Lines 9, 10, and 11 are the last lines of our custom intranetuserjs. Knowing that Koha wants to close the <script> tag it opened on line 1, we have to re-open a new <script> tag so that when Koha closes it we’ll have valid markup.

Putting it all together, here’s what the contents of our intranetuserjs preference will be:

[sourcecode language=”css”] // ]]>

/* Custom styles here */
#login h1 a {
#login h1 {
background:url("https://www.example.com/images/logo.png") no-repeat scroll center top transparent;

// <![CDATA[

If all goes well, this is what you should see when you log out and look at your login screen:

id=”attachment_633″ align=”aligncenter” width=”300″ caption=”Customized login form”

Note: I’ve published a quick addendum to this post which covers using jQuery to change the URL to which the logo links

Cart and Lists buttons revisited

It’s been almost three years since I wrote Colorizing the Cart and Lists buttons. My conclusion then was that we needed a fairly complex combination of markup, CSS, and background images to create the appearance of the buttons.

This works fairly well in Firefox, Safari, and Chrome. Unfortunately, it fails not only in Internet Explorer 6, 7, and 8, but all versions of Opera too. For the time being, our more-complex process gives the desired result to a wider audience.

The time has come for the simpler version. My patch for Koha bug 7584, “Update cart and lists buttons style using CSS3 features” has just appeared in Koha’s master branch, the development version which precedes an official release.

What has changed? Firefox, Safari, and Chrome have had updates since then, which has at the very least expanded the number of users of those browsers who are on a more recent version. Opera, one of the holdbacks in 2009, now supports the features required. Internet Explorer 6, 7, and 8 still linger of course, but Internet Explorer 9 is available now. IE9 offers better support for the features we need.

For me what has changed is that I now think that Koha should be a little more aggressive about taking advantage of the features of up to date browsers even if that means the experience isn’t the same for users of older browsers.

The new style

Let’s take a look at the revised markup. Where the previous version needed a lot of extra elements (<i>, <span>, etc) the new version doesn’t:

[sourcecode language=”HTML”]




I’ll quote the relevant declarations from the CSS. First, both buttons are assigned rounded corners:

[sourcecode language=”CSS”]

#cartmenulink, #listsmenulink {
-webkit-border-radius: 5px;
-moz-border-radius: 5px;
border-radius: 5px;


Notice the variations: “-webkit-border-radius” is specific to Chrome and Safari. “-moz-border-radius” is specific to Mozilla-based browsers like Firefox. When we specify a single value like “5px” the value is applied equally to all four corners. You can also specify different values:

[sourcecode language=”CSS”]

#cartmenulink, #listsmenulink {
-webkit-border-radius: 4px 15px 4px 15px;
-moz-border-radius: 4px 15px 4px 15px;
border-radius: 4px 15px 4px 15px;


The values are applied clockwise starting with the upper left-hand corner.

Background Gradients

The other primary aspect of the buttons are their background colors. Previously we used a transparent image to give the button background a gradient. With CSS3 we can specify the gradient values right in our CSS. The easiest way to accomplish this is using the Ultimate CSS Gradient Generator.

A web-based tool for designing CSS gradients

With the CSS Gradient Generator you can use the visual tools for creating a gradient and the CSS will be generated for you. It generates CSS declarations specific to several major browser versions including Internet Explorer. There is even an option to upload a gradient image and have the Generator automatically match the colors.

Here’s the gradient CSS for the Cart button:

[sourcecode language=”CSS”]

#cartmenulink {
background: #98CB58; /* Old browsers */
background: url(“../../images/cart.gif”),-moz-linear-gradient(top, #d5eaba 0%, #b7db8a 50%, #98cb59 100%); /* FF3.6+ */
background: url(“../../images/cart.gif”),-webkit-gradient(linear, left top, left bottom, color-stop(0%,#d5eaba), color-stop(50%,#b7db8a), color-stop(100%,#98cb59)); /* Chrome,Safari4+ */
background: url(“../../images/cart.gif”),-webkit-linear-gradient(top, #d5eaba 0%,#b7db8a 50%,#98cb59 100%); /* Chrome10+,Safari5.1+ */
background: url(“../../images/cart.gif”),-o-linear-gradient(top, #d5eaba 0%,#b7db8a 50%,#98cb59 100%); /* Opera 11.10+ */
background: url(“../../images/cart.gif”),-ms-linear-gradient(top, #d5eaba 0%,#b7db8a 50%,#98cb59 100%); /* IE10+ */
background: url(“../../images/cart.gif”),linear-gradient(top, #d5eaba 0%,#b7db8a 50%,#98cb59 100%); /* W3C */
filter: progid:DXImageTransform.Microsoft.gradient( startColorstr=’#d5eaba’, endColorstr=’#98cb59′,GradientType=0 ); /* IE6-9 */



Eight lines of CSS each doing the same thing for different browsers, starting with a solid background color for browsers which don’t support CSS3. This is the same kind of code which will be generated by the CSS Gradient Generator with one exception: The OPAC CSS also includes a background image for the Cart button in order to display the little cart icon.

There’s more to the styling of the buttons than rounded corners and background-gradients, but nothing which we haven’t seen before. Fire up Firebug (or your favorite browser’s DOM inspection tool) and inspect the buttons for more information.

What have we gained?

Just looking at the HTML markup it would seem we’ve gained a lot of efficiency over the <span>-heavy buttons in the older version. But the multiple lines of CSS more than make up for it. What advantages does the new design offer? Importantly, flexibility. We don’t have to create custom-colored 24-bit transparent images when changing the background color of the search bar. We can make all our changes, including changes to the Cart icon, right in the CSS. Border color, border radius, background-color (or gradient), it’s now 100% CSS and can be affected by a custom stylesheet or by changes to the OPACUserCSS system preference.

This change is going to require some revisions if your library has existing CSS customizations to these areas of the OPAC, but I think going forward these changes are going to prove to be beneficial to those seeking to customize their OPAC’s appearance.